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  • Writing a logical, justified hypothesis
  • Identifying independent, dependent, & constant variables
  • Describing control vs. experimental groups
  • Taking accurate measurements of mass/volume/distance (length)
  • Collecting qualitative vs. quantitative data
  • Graphing data using an appropriate scale, axes labels, title
  • Analyzing graphical data & forming logical conclusions
  • Determining the scientific validity of experimental data

  • A high level of comfort with algebra & basic geometry is required
  • Standard metric units of mass, volume, temperature          
  • Metric conversions: micro <--> kilo
  • Scientific notation and corresponding metric prefixes [10-9 (nano) <--> 109 (giga)]
  • Determining significant figures
  • Percentages, Percent change, Percent error
  • Mean (Average), Median, Mode, Range
  • Square, Square root
  • Radius, diameter, length, height, width, area, surface area (of sphere, cube, rectangular solid), volume (of sphere, cube, column)
  • Exponents vs. logarithms, how do exponential vs. logarithmic data look on a graph?
  • Graphing: line of best fit, equation of a line, slope of a line
  • Calculating rate (units/time elapsed, such as mL/sec)

  • Characteristics/properties of life
  • Levels of Organization/Scale: atom <--> biosphere
  • Basic Ecology Terms: producer, consumer, decomposer, herbivore, carnivore, omnivore, detrivore, food chain, food web, energy pyramid, trophic levels, net & gross primary productivity
  • Cell Theory, Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells, Animal vs. Plant Cells
  • Unicellular vs. Multicellular organisms, Asexual vs. Sexual reproduction
  • Basic structure of a cell membrane, osmosis, diffusion, active transport
  • Energy: In gas/liquid all molecules are moving (kinetic energy), relationship between temperature & kinetic energy & rate of chemical reactions, role of enzymes, photosynthesis vs. cellular respiration
  • Central Dogma (DNA --> RNA --> Protein)
  • Mendel & Genetics:  dominant vs. recessive alleles, simple Punnett square : Bb x bb – What would the babies be?  How many of each?
  • Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection, concept of common ancestry & descent with modification
  • 3 Domains of Life, Levels of Classification/Taxonomy: species à domain

  • Matter, elements vs. compounds, a molecule’s properties depends on structure of its atoms
  • Subatomic particles (protons, neutrons, electrons), using a periodic table to find atomic number & atomic mass, family/group properties, isotopes
  • Electron shells vs. orbitals, valence electrons, atomic stability (octet rule)
  • Chemical reactions: ender/exogonic, endo/exothermic, Gibbs free energy, reactant vs. product, chemical equation, dynamic equilibrium (chemical equilibrium)
  • Chemical bonds: ionic, covalent, single/double/triple nonpolar covalent, polar covalent
  • Electronegativity, anion, cation, salt, polarity, hydrophilic vs. hydrophobic
  • Intermolecular interactions: hydrogen bonds, ionic/dipole interactions, hydrophobic interactions, van der Waals interactions
  • Molecular vs. structural formulas of molecules
  • Molecular & structural formula of water
  • Physical properties of water: cohesion, adhesion, surface tension, capillary action, high specific heat, high heat of vaporization, biological solvent
  • Chemical properties of water: ionization, hydroxide ion, hydrogen ion, hydronium ion, pH = -log[H+], acids, bases, buffers, dissociation reaction, H+ acceptor vs. donor
  • Making solutions: solvent vs. solute, moles, molarity (M)
  • Last Modified: Wednesday 24 February 2021, 18:19:05.