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Biomolecules = organic molecules such as proteins (including enzymes), carbohydrates and lipids.
Synthesis = to make
Transport = moving stuff around.
This video is part 2 of the class that looks at the role of the nucleus, ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus and vesicles in the production and processing of biomolecules.
Proteins - the instructions occur in sections of DNA that occur in chromosomes in the nucleus. These sections that code for a specific protein are called genes. The 'photocopy' of the relevant section of DNA made for this production is called mRNA. mRNA moves out of the nucleus via the nuclear pore to the ribosomes. Ribosomes then manufacture the protein - assembling by 'reading' the instructions on the mRNA. The instructions tell the ribosome what amino acids (remember these - the building blocks of proteins!) to add to make the protein. Proteins made on ribosome embedded onto Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum then pass into the lumen of the RER, where enzymes may add sugar molecules to make glycoproteins; they may check the protein is correctly folded; and sort the proteins. Vesicles that bud off from the RER then pass to the Golgi complex, which may further sort the proteins, add sugar molecules to make glycoproteins. The Golgi is also the site of some carbohydrate manufacture. Vesicles that bud off from the Golgi can then send proteins out of the cell by exocytosis.
Lipids, steroids and phospholipids are assembed in the smooth endoplasmic reticulum.
The video then looks at the storage of biomolecules, and the role of lysosomes and vacuoles. Great stuff.
  • Last Modified: Wednesday 24 February 2021, 18:19:05.